Social scientists posit that people experiencing disturbing social change can seize on particularist identities like ethnicity or nationality. Demographic change and economic change and shifting social values all can trigger such a response. On the other hand, cultural and economic elites in Western countries celebrate the free flow of goods and labor. They also have developed more cosmopolitan views than have many fellow citizens.
Illegal immigration provides a good example of the particularist-cosmopolitan tension. In recent times, illegal migration has become easier than ever before in history. In both Europe and America bitter quarrels over immigration rack politics. These controversies arise not from heavy current immigration, but from heavy prior immigration. More importantly, the general backlash against elites–who led us to war in Iraq and then into the financial crisis—has ensnared migrants.
Illegal migration to the United States dropped sharply during the Great Recession. It hasn’t picked up immensely in the past year. However, that still leaves 10-12 million illegal immigrants in the United States. Human symbols of elite failure. Liberals insisting on calling them “undocumented immigrants”—as if there is just some bureaucratic foul-up in Washington—adds fuel to the fire. President Obama’s skirting of the law angered many people. Illegal immigration in the European Union is more recent. There the flood of migrants from various failed states mixes with refugees from war-torn Muslim states.
People leave their “shithole” countries for good reasons and not just on a whim. Until conditions in those countries improve, there is not likely to be a significant drop in attempts at illegal immigration. To complicate matters further, while many of the migrants are economic migrants, the law allows them to request asylum as victims of persecution. This clogs the immigration system and delays repatriation.
In light of this reality, attention has turned to deterring them from reaching American or European soil in the first place. Europeans have negotiated with pathway countries—Libya, Sudan, and Turkey—to stem the departures for Europe. The implementation of those agreements involves a good deal of brutality that is much worse than anything suffered by Central American migrants to the United States. Mexico is unwilling to play that sort of role for the United States. The “zero tolerance” policy attempted by a Trump administration grown tired of waiting for Congressional approval of a border wall offers another form of deterrence.
Cosmopolitans sometimes phrase the choice in a misleading way: “What sort of society do they wish to be? Do they wish to be immigrant nations with continual demographic and cultural change?” First, both the European Union and the United States have long had substantial legal immigration. Second, it is legitimate to debate what kinds of immigrants best serve the interests of the community.
 Benjamin Barber, Jihad and McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Shaping World Society (1996). Barber’s analysis remains engaging, but it wasn’t new. Late-Nineteenth Century sociologists had identified the problem of anomie. For that matter, historians long ago diagnosed the rise of “mystery” religions as a response to the cosmopolitanism of the Hellenistic kingdoms.
 Amanda Taub and Max Fisher, “In U.S. and Europe, Conflict Over Migration Points to Political Problems,” NYT, 30 June 2018.