In spite of the confident assertions on the right and the left, violence in America is full of puzzles and contradictions. First, murder rates have fluctuated. In 1980, America had a murder rate of 10.2 per 100,000 people. The rate drifted downward for the next ten years, then began to fall sharply from about 1990. By 2014 it had fallen to 4.5 murders per 100,000 people. Then, in 2015, the national murder rate increased to 10.8 percent. However, the sharp increase can be attributed to selected cities (Baltimore, Houston, and especially Chicago). There murder rates jumped to highs not seen in half a decade. For example, by about 22 November 2015, Baltimore’s homicide tally hit 300 deaths. This is 42 percent higher than the total for 2014 and we still had the holidays to go. Most of the rise seems to have come since the rioting that followed the arresting-to-death of Freddy Gray. That’s scary because the last time the US had an increase like this came in 1971, at the dawn of several violent decades.
One question to ask is if these changes reflected government action or some other influences. A second question to ask is, if it did reflect government action, then did it reflect federal, state, or local action? A third question to ask is, if it reflected some other influences, what were those influences?
Second, superficially at least, declining murder rates were tracked by declining support for the death penalty. In 1994, fully 80 percent of Americans supported the death penalty for murder, while 16 percent opposed it and 4 percent were unsure. By March 2015, 56 percent supported it. By October 2016, 49 percent supported the death penalty. Similarly, the use of capital punishment continues to decline in the United States. It fell from 98 in 1999 to 35 in 2014 to 20 in the first two-thirds of 2015. Extrapolating from that latter figure, there would be 30 in all of 2015. Even in Texas, the state most prone to impose the death sentence, no one has been sentenced to death so far in 2015.
Third, just over half (55 percent) of Americans think that gun ownership can be restricted without violating the constitution (and the Second Amendment be Damned!) and slightly more (57 percent) want a ban on assault weapons. Conversely, 43 percent of Americans believe that gun ownership cannot be restricted without violating the constitution and 25 percent oppose banning even assault weapons. All the same, almost three-quarters (73 percent) of Americans support universal background checks.
Fourth gun control is bad for gun control. After the liberal characterization of the San Bernardino terrorist attack as a “mass shooting,” gun sales zoomed upward. In December 2015, Americans bought 3.3 million guns. All of these sales have been from licensed gun-dealers because the government background check system has been swamped. Attorney General Loretta Lynch has asked for the hiring of 430 additional people just to process the background checks of Americans complying with the existing gun laws.
In spite of the obvious violation of individual civil rights, most (80 percent) of Americans favor banning people on terrorist watch-lists from buying guns. A small minority (17 percent) suspect that the ban would not be very effective. There are 25,000 to 40,000 Americans on terror watch-lists. Of these people, 244 of them tried to buy firearms in 2015. That is, about one tenth of one percent sought to buy weapons. People on terrorist watch lists buy guns at lower rates than do “ordinary” Americans.
Fifth, what is a “mass shooting?” Orlando or Newtown, right? Actually, the EffaBeeEye’s definition is a little more expansive: a single event in which four or more people get shot. So, criminals probably commit the bulk of the mass-shootings as a by-product of their business or personal lives. By the EffaBeeEye’s standard, there have been 133 mass shootings in 2016. Florida has suffered 15 (or 11.2 percent) of them.
Americans are sharply divided over how to interpret Omar Mateen’s massacre in the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, FL. Most (60 percent) Democrats see it as an example of “domestic gun violence,” while most (79 percent) Republicans see it as an example of “Islamic terrorism.” The trouble is that the partisan filter on the vision of observers inhibits both understanding and civil discourse. The further trouble is that both are right.
America is becoming a less violent place in comparison to the past, if not in comparison to Denmark. Murder rates are generally trending downward; support for the death penalty is trending downward; and support for gun-control seems to be rising. However, the politics of gun-control may well be hampering further progress. It is common to blame the National Rifle Association for this problem. It is common to use “terrorism” and “mass shootings” as labels that justify pushing ahead rapidly with strict gun-controls. All that this does is to put the backs up on gun-owners.
Instead of shaming campaigns (satisfying though they are to many liberals), perhaps the best answer to a violent America is education campaigns. Between 1964 and 2004, the number of Americans who smoked fell every year. But in 2004, the decline bottomed out at 20.8 percent. It stayed there through the end of 2007.
Still, in these regards, America is a better, safer place to live than when I was a child. Unless, of course, you are living in one of the broken cities where the War on Drugs spawns the “war for corners”; and where the “war for corners” spawns a confrontational style among young men with no better future.
This doesn’t end up exactly where I wanted to go when I began writing. It just ends up where some random facts led me.
 “Noted,” The Week, 29 July 2016, p. 16.
 “Noted,” The Week, 27 November 2015, p. 16.
 “Noted,” The Week, 7 October 2016, p. 16.
 “Poll Watch,” The Week, 14 October 2016, p. 17.
 “Noted,” The Week, 25 September 2015, p. 16.
 “Poll Watch,” The Week, 5 August 2016, p. 17.
 “Noted,” The Week, 5 February 2016, p.8.
 “Poll Watch,” The Week, 1 July 2016, p.7
 “Noted,” The Week, 1 July 2016, p. 16.
 “Noted,” The Week, 24 June 2016, p. 20. By this standard, the “Gunfight at the OK Corral” was a mass-shooting. Especially if you were one of the Earp brothers. If you were a Clanton or a McLaury, then it was a mass getting-shot.
 “Poll Watch,” The Week, 1 July 2016, p.7.
 “Noted,” The Week, 23 November 2007, p. 16. Why did the decline stop? What has it done since then? Who are the remaining smokers? I don’t know. Perhaps they constitute a libertarian revolt against the intrusive nanny-state of liberal fascism. Perhaps the people who rush to buy guns and ammo (as opposed to buying Guns and Ammo) are operating under the same star.