Iranian-American relations haven’t been good since the revolution of 1979 overthrew Shah Reza Pahlevi. Sometimes they are less-bad. Right at the moment, they are more-bad. During the Obama administration, Iran pushed on many fronts that menaced not the United States, but its allies and clients. All of this put both Israel and Saudi Arabia on edge. They saw—and still see—Iran as determined to make itself the dominant state in a re-ordered Middle East. The twin pillars of this dominance would be a series of client states in Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon; and nuclear weapons with the ballistic missiles to deliver them. The re-ordering might include the annihilation of Israel and the limitation of America’s role in the region. In the wake of the disastrous Iraq war, the American people clearly didn’t want another big war in the Middle East. Sensibly, the Obama administration’s diplomacy focused on a successful effort to constrain Iran’s nuclear program.
That left many other issues unresolved. In May 2018, President Trump chose to leave the nuclear agreement. He has re-imposed economic sanctions and has sought to coerce other countries to impose an effective embargo on Iranian oil.
On the left, there is a suspicion that the president believes that regime-change in Iran offers the only reasonable solution. President Trump’s rhetoric both attacks the Iranian ruling elite as corrupt and illegitimate, and celebrates Iranians who protest against that government. However, the Iranian regime wields powerful tools against dissent.
On the right, there is a hope that confrontation will force the Iranians to make concessions in other areas as well. Many experts doubt that Iran’s leaders will bend.
Will Iran’s leaders do something stupid? For its part, Iran has raised the possibility of closing the Straits of Hormuz at the outer end of the Persian Gulf in retaliation for American actions. Some 40 percent of the world’s oil passes through the Straits in tankers. They tried this during the long Iran-Iraq War in the Eighties. The US Navy began convoying tankers. On 22 July 2018, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said that President Trump was running the risk of “the mother of all wars.” Trump responded in kind. If Iran actually did try to close the Straits of Hormuz, then the possibility of military conflict would become very real. It seems unlikely that American air and naval forces operating from Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, and the Arabian Sea would stop at suppressing Iranian forces around the Straits. Very heavy air attacks could follow on Iran’s nuclear facilities and key regime assets like the Revolutionary Guard. So, Iran probably will not close the Straits.
It seems equally unlikely that American leaders will do something stupid. Americans still don’t want a big war in the Middle East. Iran’s nuclear program can only be constrained voluntarily. Nuclear weapons are a matter of science, engineering, and money. Iran has all three. An attack would not necessarily do more than postpone the Iranian program. An attack would sent Iran in pursuit of other, indirect ways of striking back at American interests in the Middle East and elsewhere.
Maybe Vladimir Putin will quietly mediate a settlement.
 Rick Gladstone, “A War of Words With Iran Risks Spiraling Beyond Control,” NYT, 24 July 2018.
 It worked OK from 1954 to 1979. We’ve had forty years of hostility in return for twenty-five years of cooperation.
 Saddam Hussein used the same phrase when faced with an American invasion in 2003.