The United States and the Holocaust I.

            When did Jews fall under Nazi Germany’s control? 

            1933

Germany:                    525,000  237,000 by 1939, so better than half had emigrated. 

            1938.

Austria:                       250,000   

            1939.  The seizure of Czechoslovakia came as a surprise, but not the attack on Poland. 

Czechoslovakia:          357,000  March.

Poland:                     3,000,000  September.  Roughly two-thirds; the others fell to the Soviets. 

            1940.  All of these came as an astonishing surprise in a few months of war. 

Denmark:                        5,700   April.  Most later escaped to Sweden.

Norway:                          1,400   April.  Most later escaped to Sweden. 

France:                        250,000   June in Occupied Zone; November 1942 in the rest of France.

Netherlands:                156,000   June. 

Belgium:                       60,000   June.   

            1941.  All of these came as an astonishing surprise. 

Greece:                          73,000   April.

Yugoslavia:                   68,000   April

Bulgaria:                       48,500   Blocked the Germans from taking most Bulgarian Jews. 

Albania:                             200   April

European Russia:      2,525,000[1] June-December

Estonia:                           4,560   June-December.  Part of the Soviet Union from September 1939.

Latvia:                           95,600   June-December.  Part of the Soviet Union from September 1939.

Lithuania:                    155,000   June-December.  Part of the Soviet Union from September 1939.

Romania:                      756,000  Murderously antisemitic in some places; not so much elsewhere.

            1943.

Italy:                              48,000   September.[2] 

            1944.

Hungary:                     445,000  

            Never.

Spain:                              4,000  Portugal:                      1,200  Sweden:                       6,700  

Switzerland:                18,000    Britain and the Palestine Mandate:                          475,000 


[1] On the one hand, possibly 1 million Polish Jews were added to the Soviet population in Fall 1939.  On the other hand, many Jews fled or were evacuated eastward when Germany attacked. 

[2] Italy tried to jump ship on Germany; the Germans fell on the northern two-thirds of the country like an avalanche.

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